In 1904, the Great Falls and Old Dominion Railroad constructed a superstructure that extended outward from the upstream side of the bridge's deck. The superstructure carried the electric trolleys of the railroad and its successor, the Washington and Old Dominion Railway, between Georgetown and Rosslyn, Great Falls, Leesburg, and Bluemont, Virginia until the bridge closed.
In 1923, the bridge was closed after the Key Bridge was built downstream about a hundred feet east. The Aqueduct Bridge's superstructure and most of the above-water portions of its piers were removed in 1933. The bases of the piers were retained to protect the Key Bridge's piers from ice floe damage. In 1962, seven of the eight remaining pilings from the Aqueduct Bridge were blasted out to a depth of twelve feet below the waterline after recreational boaters claimed that they were hazardous.
The Aqueduct Bridge Washington abutment still survives and is located west of the Key Bridge. The southern arch underneath the abutment is used to shelter rowing shells belonging to members of the Potomac Boat Club. The sole remaining pier is located in the river near the Virginia shore. The bridge's Virginia abutment remains in place beneath and upstream of the Key Bridge.