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Town lattice truss

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1820, Jan 28 - Ithiel Town was awarded a patent for a lattice truss used in bridge construction. Unlike other timber bridge trusses used at that time, Town's design depended on lap joints secured with treenails rather than precision mortising. This decreased the dependency on high-skill labor and decreased construction time. Though there have been many variations implemented by various builders across the many, many years, characteristics of a typical truss web are: diagonals at about 45 degrees from horizontal, each diagonal intersecting four crossing diagonals for a total of six joints per diagonal, two lower chords - one at the diagonal ends and the other at the lowest diagonal intersection, a single top chord, and floor beams resting on the bottom chord. The use of a lattice continued well beyond timber bridges and appears in sub-member construction of steel struts, chords, and sway braces.


Kilgore Mill Bridge 10-07-04x (Walton County, Georgia)
Built 1874, burned by arsonists April 23, 1993
Covered Town lattice truss bridge over Appalachee River on Briscoe Mill Rd. (Carl Davis Rd.)
Lost, burned by arsonists April 23, 1993

Kingsley Covered Bridge 45-11-03 (Rutland County, Vermont)
Built 1836 by Timothy Horton; rehabilitated 1987
Covered bridge over Mill River on C3039 in Clarendon
Open to traffic

Knecht's Covered Bridge 38-09-02 (Bucks County, Pennsylvania)
Built 1873; rehabilitated 1983
Covered bridge over Cooks Creek on Knect's Road in Springfield Twp near Springtown, PA. Bucks County Bridge #192
Open to traffic

Ledyard Covered Bridge (Windsor County, Vermont)
Built 1859; Demolished 1935
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Connecticut River on present day Wheelock Street
Replaced by a new bridge

Lindsay's Bridge (Franklin County, Pennsylvania)
Replaced 1949
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Conococheague Creek on Sr 3004 (Bino Road)
Replaced by new bridge

Livingston Manor Covered Bridge 32-53-03 (Sullivan County, New York)
Built 1860; rehabilitated 1986
Wooden covered bridge over Willowemoc Creek on Covered Bridge Road
Open to traffic

Longley Covered Bridge 45-06-08 (Franklin County, Vermont)
Built 1863; Rehabilitated 1992; Bypassed 2013
Covered Town Lattice through truss bridge over Trout River on Longley Bridge Rd (C3004)
Intact but closed to all traffic

Loux Covered Bridge 38-09-11 (Bucks County, Pennsylvania)
Built 1871
Covered bridge over Cabin Run Creek on Schlentz Hill Road
Open to traffic

Lower Shavertown Covered Bridge 32-13-07 (Delaware County, New York)
Moved to its present location in 1954
Lattice through truss bridge over Trout Brook on Private drive
Open to traffic

Ludlow Green's Covered Bridge 32-52-02 (Suffolk County, New York)
Built 1990
Town lattice truss bridge over Poxabogue Pond on Private Drive


LVRC - Fisher Covered Bridge (Lamoille County, Vermont)
Built 1908 by St. Johnsbury & Lamoille County Railroad; Steel stringers added 1968; Line abandoned 1997; Rehabilitated 2001
Covered double Town Lattice through truss bridge over Lamoille River on Lamoille Valley Rail Road
Open to pedestrians only

Martin's Mill Covered Bridge 38-28-01 (Franklin County, Pennsylvania)
Built 1849
Through truss bridge on West Weaver Road
Open to pedestrians only

Martin's Mill Covered Bridge 45-14-01 (Windsor County, Vermont)
Built 1881
Covered bridge over Lulls Brook on Martinsville Rd (C3046) in Hartland
Open to traffic

Mary Morrow Covered Bridge 49-42-d (Monroe County, Wisconsin)
It was built to replace a failing bridge in the winter of 2013-2014
Town lattice truss bridge over Beaver Creek on Pedestrians, Snowmobiles, Bikes
Open to traffic

Marysville Covered Bridge (Marion County, Iowa)
Built at Marysville in 1891, this half moved to the Knoxville in 1968
Covered bridge in park Knoxville
Open to pedestrians only

McBride Covered Bridge (Madison County, Iowa)
Built in 1871 by Benton Jones; destroyed by arson in 1983 and replaced.
Lost Lattice through truss bridge over North River on McBride Bridge Road (now McBride Road)
Destroyed by fire

McDermott Covered Bridge 29-10-06 (Sullivan County, New Hampshire)
Built 1869
Covered bridge over Cold River on Bypassed Historic in Langdon
Closed to all traffic

Meadows Mill Covered Bridge 01-41-03x (Lee County, Alabama)
Built 1903 replacing older bridge destroyed by flood 1902; Restored shortly before destroyed by arson October 4, 1973
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Halawakee Creek on Covered Bridge Road
Destroyed by fire

MEC - Passumpsic River Covered Bridge (Caledonia County, Vermont)
Built 1908; Intentionally Burned 1927
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Passumpsic River on Maine Central Railroad
Destroyed by fire

Middle Covered Bridge 45-14-15 (Windsor County, Vermont)
Built 1968 by Graton Associates; rehabilitated 1976 following fire damage
Covered Town Lattice through truss bridge over Ottauquechee River on Mountain Ave. (C3UN1) in Woodstock
Open to traffic

Milledgeville Covered Bridge (Baldwin County, Georgia)
Built sometime in the 1850s
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Oconee River on Road
No longer exists

Moore's Crossing Bridge (1868) (Hillsborough County, New Hampshire)
Built 1868
Lost Town lattice through truss bridge over Merrimack River on
Replaced by a new bridge

Mull Covered Bridge 35-72-01 (Sandusky County, Ohio)
Built 1851; made obsolete by new bridge in 1962 and closed to traffic
Covered bridge on CR 9 southwest of Fremont
Open to pedestrians only

Mullen Covered Bridge 35-04-16 (Ashtabula County, Ohio)
Built 1876; rehabilitated 1987-88
Covered bridge over Mill Creek on Doyle Road
Open to traffic

Narrows Creek Covered Bridge (Sauk County, Wisconsin)
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Narrows Creek on Road
Replaced by a new bridge

Nectar Covered Bridge 01-05-04x (Blount County, Alabama)
Built 1932; Destroyed by arson 1993
Lost covered bridge over Locust Fork River on Covered Bridge Road
Destroyed by fire

Nehemiah Jewett Covered Bridge 21-09-01x (Middlesex County, Massachusetts)
Built 1847; Pedestrian walkway installed 1920; Replaced 1962
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Nashua River on Groton Street
Replaced by a new bridge

New England College Covered Bridge 29-07-12 (Merrimack County, New Hampshire)
Built 1972
Town lattice truss bridge over Contoocook River on Footbridge
Open to pedestrians only

Newfield Covered Bridge 32-55-01 (Tompkins County, New York)
Built 1853; rehabilitated 1972
Town Lattice through truss with supplemental arches over West Branch Cayuga Inlet on Covered Bridge Street in Newfield Hamlet
Open to traffic

Newton Falls Covered Bridge 35-78-01 (Trumbull County, Ohio)
Built ca. 1831; rehabilitated 2007
Covered bridge over East Branch Mahoning River on Arlington Street in Newton Falls
Open to traffic

North Hartland Twin Covered Bridge 45-14-64 #2 (Windsor County, Vermont)
Built 2001
Town lattice truss bridge over Ottauquechee River on Mill Street
Open to traffic

Northfield Falls Covered Bridge 45-12-08 (Washington County, Vermont)
Built 1872; rehabilitated 1969
Covered Town Lattice bridge over Dog River on Cox Brook Road (C2003) in Northfield Falls
Open to traffic

Old Lattice Bridge 29-05-06x (Grafton County, New Hampshire)
Built 1878
Lost Town lattice truss w/supplemental arches bridge over Pemigewasset River on Staple Rock Park Rd
Destroyed by fire

Old Mill Village Covered Bridge 38-58-01 (Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania)
Built 1965
Town lattice truss bridge over unnamed stream
Open to all traffic

Olin Covered Bridge 35-04-03 (Ashtabula County, Ohio)
Built 1873; reconstructed 1993
Covered bridge over Ashtabula River on Dewey Road (TH 334) in Edgewood
Open to traffic

Orford-Fairleigh Covered Bridge 29-05-94x / 45-09-40x (Grafton County, New Hampshire)
Built ca. 1850; Replaced 1937 by current bridge
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Connecticut River on Bridge Street
Replaced by a new bridge

Paper Mill Covered Bridge 45-02-03 #2 (Bennington County, Vermont)
Replaced an 1889 covered bridge
Lattice through truss bridge over Walloomsack River on Murphy Rd.
Open to traffic

Paper Mill Road Covered Bridge 10-33-01x (Cobb County, Georgia)
Built ca. 1870; Destroyed by arson March 29, 1964
Lost Covered Town lattice truss bridge over Sope Creek on Paper Mill Road
Destroyed by fire

Pompanoosuc Bridge (Windsor County, Vermont)
Built 1866 by Bela Fletcher; Bypassed 1937; Demolished 1954
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Ompanoosuc River on U.S. Route 5
Demolished

Poole's Mill Covered Bridge 10-58-01 #2 (Forsyth County, Georgia)
See above. Now part of a county park.
Lattice through truss covered bridge over Settendown (Settingdown) Creek on Poole's Mill Road
Open to pedestrians

Prather Bridge (Oconee County, South Carolina)
Built 1920; Burned April 9th 1978
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Tugaloo River on Cleveland Pike Road
Destroyed by fire

Prentiss Covered Bridge 29-10-07 (Sullivan County, New Hampshire)
Built 1874, bypassed 1954
Covered bridge over Great Brook on NH 12A in Langdon
Closed to all traffic

Putman Covered Bridge 01-05-02x / 01-22-13x (Blount County, Alabama)
Lost Lattice through truss bridge over Mulberry Fork on Co Rd 10
Lost

Red Mill Covered Bridge 49-69-01 (Waupaca County, Wisconsin)
Built 1970
Town lattice truss bridge over Crystal River on Private Drive
Open to private traffic

Red Oak Covered Bridge 10-99-02 (Meriwether County, Georgia)
Built in the 1840s; rehabilitated 1980
Covered bridge over Red Oak Creek on Covered Bridge Road
Open to traffic

Rhyno's Ford Bridge (Madison County, Iowa)
Built 1872; Replaced 1934
Town lattice truss bridge over Clanton Creek on road
Replaced by a new bridge

Richard's Covered Bridge (Hartford County, Connecticut)
Replaced 1895
Lost Town lattice through truss bridge over Farmington River on Road
Replaced by a new bridge

River Road Bridge 45-10-03 (Orleans County, Vermont)
Built 1910
Covered bridge over Missisquoi River on C3012 in Troy
Open to traffic

Riverdale Road Covered Bridge 35-04-22 (Ashtabula County, Ohio)
Built 1900
Covered bridge over Grand River on Riverdale Road (CR 69)
Open to traffic

Rock Creek Covered Bridge 35-04-23x (Ashtabula County, Ohio)
Built 1832 by Samuel Ackley & George Crowell of Ashtabula-Trumbull Turnpike Co.; Survived flood and ice jams 1884; Caught fire 1924; Petitions raised 1942 by Travelers Club to save and preserve but failed; Dismantled and replace by steel truss 1948
Lost Covered Through truss bridge over Rock Creek on Stiles Avenue
Replaced by a new bridge

Root Road Covered Bridge 35-04-09 (Ashtabula County, Ohio)
Built 1868; rehabilitated 1983
Two-span covered bridge over West Branch Ashtabula River on Root Road
Open to traffic

Rose-Dunmire Bridge (Madison County, Iowa)
Built 1871; Replaced 1912
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over North River on Road
Replaced by a new bridge

Roseman Covered Bridge (Madison County, Iowa)
Built 1883; rehabilitated 1992
Covered bridge over Middle River next to CR G47
Open to pedestrians only

Route 5 Three Crossings Covered Bridge (Windham County, Vermont)
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over White River on US Route 5
Replaced by a new bridge

Sachs Covered Bridge 38-01-01 (Adams County, Pennsylvania)
Built in 1852 by David S. Stoner. On June 19, 1996, a flash flood knocked the bridge from one of its abutments. It was restored: over 75% of its original structure was used. It was reconstructed in 1996. The bridge was rededicated on July 21, 1997
Through truss bridge over Marsh Creek on Waterworks Road


Salem Shotwell Covered Bridge 01-41-04 (Lee County, Alabama)
Bridge was originally built in 1900 over Wacoochee Creek near Salem. Damaged by a falling tree in 2005. Relocated and rebuilt in 2007 at its present location.
Relocated lattice through truss bridge over Rocky Brook on a pedestrian path at Opelika Municipal Park
Open to pedestrians

Sanderson Covered Bridge 45-11-02 #2 (Rutland County, Vermont)
Built 1838; rehabilitated 2003
Covered Town Lattice bridge over Otter Creek on Pearl Street (C2004) in Brandon
Open to traffic

Sawyer Pond Covered Bridge 21-05-13 (Essex County, Massachusetts)
Built 1990
Town lattice truss bridge over Sawyer Pond


Sawyers Crossing Covered Bridge 29-03-05 (Cheshire County, New Hampshire)
Built 1859; rehabilitated 1996
Two-span covered bridge over Ashuelot River on Sawyers Crossing Road in Swanzey
Open to traffic

Schofield Ford Covered Bridge, 38-09-13 (Bucks County, Pennsylvania)
Rebuilt 1997
Bridge over Neshaminy Creek on Park Road
Open to pedestrians, bicycle and horse traffic

Scott Covered Bridge 45-13-13 (Windham County, Vermont)
Built 1870; Closed to traffic 1955; Rehabilitated 2016
Covered Lattice through truss bridge over West River on Back Side Road


Sheards Mill Covered Bridge 38-09-06 (Bucks County, Pennsylvania)
Built 1873; rehabilitated 1971
Covered bridge over Tohickon Creek on Covered Bridge Road in East Rockhill Township, PA
Open to traffic

Shushan Covered Bridge 32-58-02 (Washington County, New York)
Bypassed in 1963 to private land and made into a museum
Covered Bridge over Batten Kill north of CR61 on private land
Used as a museum

Silk Road Covered Bridge 45-02-04 (Bennington County, Vermont)
Built 1840; rehabilitated 1991
Covered bridge over Walloomsac River on C3026 in Bennington
Open to traffic

Slate Covered Bridge 29-03-06 (Cheshire County, New Hampshire)
Built 1862; destroyed by arson March 8, 1993; reconstructed 2001
Reconstructed covered bridge over Ashuelot River on Westport Village Road in Swanzey
Open to traffic

South Denmark Road Covered Bridge 35-04-14 (Ashtabula County, Ohio)
Built 1895
Lattice covered bridge over Mill Creek on S. Denmark Road
Open to traffic

South Pomfret Covered Bridge 45-14-18 (Windsor County, Vermont)
Original bridge built 1870; Bypassed and abandoned 1965; Half of bridge installed here 1973
Town lattice truss bridge over Barnard Brook on Private Drive
Open to private traffic

South Windsor Covered Bridge 35-04-26x (Ashtabula County, Ohio)
The South Windsor or Plank Road Covered Bridge carried Old Plank Road across the Grand River in Windsor Township, Ashtabula County Ohio, 1870-1970.
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Grand River on Twp Rd. 526 Old Plank Road
Destroyed by fire

Spade Farm Covered Bridge 45-01-02 (Addison County, Vermont)
Built 1824 by Justin Miller; Relocated to private farm 1958
Covered Town lattice through truss bridge on pedestrian walkway
Open to pedestrians

Springwater Volunteer Covered Bridge 49-70-01 (Waushara County, Wisconsin)
Built 1997
Covered Bridge over Pine River on Covered Bridge Rd (24th Ln)
Open to traffic

Squam River Covered Bridge 29-05-112 (Grafton County, New Hampshire)
Built 1990
Town lattice truss bridge over Squam River on River Street
Open to traffic

State Road Covered Bridge 35-04-58 (Ashtabula County, Ohio)
Built 1983 by John Smolen
Modern covered bridge over Conneaut Creek on State Road (CH 354)
Open to traffic

Steens Covered Bridge 24-44-02x (Lowndes County, Mississippi)
Built 1885; Replaced after 1936
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Yellow Creek on Steens Road
Replaced by a new bridge

StJ&LC - Cambridge Junction Covered Bridge (Lamoille County, Vermont)
Built 1899; Replaced 1968
Through truss bridge over Lamoille River on St. Johnsbury & Lamoille County Railroad
Replaced by a new bridge

StJ&LC - Missisquoi River Covered Bridge (Franklin County, Vermont)
Built 1898; Bypassed 1968; Destroyed by arson in 1987
Lost Covered bridge over Missisquoi River on former St. Johnsbury and Lamoille County Railroad
Destroyed by fire

StJ&LC - Wolcott Covered Bridge (Lamoille County, Vermont)
Built 1909; Replaced 1968
Lost Through truss bridge over Lamoille River on St. Johnsbury & Lamoille County Railroad
Replaced by a new bridge

Stone Mountain Covered Bridge 10-44-01 (DeKalb County, Georgia)
Built 1891; relocated 1965
Covered bridge over Stone Mountain Creek within Stone Mountain Park
Open to traffic

Stoney Morrell Memorial Covered Bridge 29-02-j (Carroll County, New Hampshire)
Built in 1999 for the 1999 New Hampshire Smithsonian Folklife Festival in Washington D.C.
Town lattice truss bridge
Open to pedestrians only

Sugar River Trail - Pier Railroad Covered Bridge 29-10-03#2 (Sullivan County, New Hampshire)
Built in 1907 by the Boston & Maine Railroad to replace an earlier covered bridge.
Lattice through truss bridge over Sugar River on Sugar River Trail
Open to pedestrians

Sugar River Trail - Wright's Covered Railroad Bridge 29-10-04#2 (Sullivan County, New Hampshire)
Built 1905-06
Covered bridge over Sugar River on the Sugar River Trail (former Boston & Maine Railroad)
Open to pedestrians

Swann Covered Bridge 01-05-05 (Blount County, Alabama)
Built 1933; renovated 2012
Covered bridge over Locust Fork River on Swann Bridge Road
Open to all traffic

Taft Bridge 45-13-31x (Windham County, Vermont)
Built 1874; Replaced 1952 and relocated to Massachusetts
Covered Town Lattice truss over Stickney Brook on modern US30
Replaced by a new bridge

Tallahatchie Covered Bridge 01-08-03x (Calhoun County, Alabama)
(Main design: Multiple Kingpost through truss)
Built 1900; Moved 1975
Multiple Kingpost through truss bridge over Nances Creek on Private Road


The Old Country Bridge (Colbert County, Alabama)
Built ca.1850; Demolished and replaced 1903
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Spring Creek on South Milton Street
Demolished and replaced by a new bridge

Thomas Ford Covered Bridge 38-32-06 #2 (Indiana County, Pennsylvania)
Replaced an older covered bridge in 1998
Lattice through truss bridge over Crooked Creek on Thomas Covered Bridge Rd. (TR414)
Open to traffic

Thompson Covered Bridge 29-03-04 (Cheshire County, New Hampshire)
Built 1832; rehabilitated 1993
Two-span covered bridge over Ashuelot River on Main Street in Swanzey
Open to traffic

Trent's Mill Covered Bridge 46-25-01x (Cumberland County, Virginia)
Unknown lost date
Town lattice truss bridge over Willis River on Trent's Mill Road (Route 622)


Trusal-Dice Covered Bridge 38-32-03 (Indiana County, Pennsylvania)
Built 1870
Covered Bridge over Plum Creek on Trusal Road (TR 406)
Bypassed to traffic, Open to pedestrians

Tucker Toll Covered Bridge 45-13-54x / 29-03-22x (Cheshire County, New Hampshire)
Built 1840; Replaced 1930
Lost Covered Town Lattice through truss bridge over Connecticut River on Road
Replaced by a new bridge

Twin Bridge 45-11-10 (Rutland County, Vermont)
Built 1850 by Nichols M. Powers; Washed away by 1947 flood; Converted to town garage
Covered Town lattice truss bridge
Intact but closed to all traffic

Upper Falls Covered Bridge 45-14-08 (Windsor County, Vermont)
Built 1840 by James Tasker; Rebuilt in 2008; Rehabilitated 2011
Covered bridge over Black River on Upper Falls Rd (C3020) in Weathersfield
Open to traffic

Upper Sheffield Covered Bridge 21-02-01 #2 (Berkshire County, Massachusetts)
Built 1832; arsoned 1994, rebuilt 1998
Town lattice truss bridge over Housatonic River on Covered Bridge Lane
Open to pedestrians only

Van Sant Covered Bridge 38-09-03 (Bucks County, Pennsylvania)
Built 1875; rehabilitated 1955
Van Sandt Covered bridge over Pidcock Creek on Covered Bridge Road (TR 392) in Solebury Twp, PA Bucks County Bridge # 73 near New Hope, PA
Open to traffic

Vermont Covered Bridge 21-14-03 (Worcester County, Massachusetts)
Built 1874; moved here 1952
Town lattice truss bridge over Quinebaug River
Open to private traffic

Ware-Hardwick Covered Bridge 21-14-01 / 21-08-04 (Worcester County, Massachusetts)
Built 1887; rehabilitated 1987
Covered bridge over Ware River on Bridge Street in Hardwick
Open to traffic

Waterford Covered Bridge 38-25-04 (Erie County, Pennsylvania)
Built 1875
Covered bridge over Leboeuf Creek on TR 463 (Niemeyer Road)
Closed to all traffic

Waterloo Covered Bridge 29-07-04 (Merrimack County, New Hampshire)
Built 1840; rehabilitated 1970
Covered Lattice truss bridge over Warner River on New Market Road in Warner
Open to traffic

Watson Mill Road Bridge 10-97-01 / 10-109-02 (Oglethorpe County, Georgia)
Built 1885; rehabilitated 1998
Covered lattice bridge over South Fork Broad River on Watson Mill Road
Open to traffic

West Cornwall Covered Bridge 07-03-02 (Litchfield County, Connecticut)
Built 1864; rehabilitated with hidden steel supports in 1973
Covered bridge over Housatonic River on CT 128
Open to traffic

West Dummerston Covered Bridge 45-13-02 #2 (Windham County, Vermont)
Built 1872; rehabilitated 1998
Covered Town Lattice through truss bridge over West River on C2001 (East-West Road) in Dummerston
Open to traffic