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Town lattice truss

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1820, Jan 28 - Ithiel Town was awarded a patent for a lattice truss used in bridge construction. Unlike other timber bridge trusses used at that time, Town's design depended on lap joints secured with treenails rather than precision mortising. This decreased the dependency on high-skill labor and decreased construction time. Though there have been many variations implemented by various builders across the many, many years, characteristics of a typical truss web are: diagonals at about 45 degrees from horizontal, each diagonal intersecting four crossing diagonals for a total of six joints per diagonal, two lower chords - one at the diagonal ends and the other at the lowest diagonal intersection, a single top chord, and floor beams resting on the bottom chord. The use of a lattice continued well beyond timber bridges and appears in sub-member construction of steel struts, chords, and sway braces.


3 Mile Bridge (Addison County, Vermont)
Built 1836; Arches added c.1860; Closed & Burned 1952
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Otter Creek on 3 Mile Bridge Road
Destroyed by fire

Ableman Curve Covered Bridge (Sauk County, Wisconsin)
Bypassed and removed 1923
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Baraboo River on Road
Removed

Ableman Station Covered Bridge (Sauk County, Wisconsin)
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Baraboo River on Road
Replaced by a new bridge

Amoskeag Company Bridge (Hillsborough County, New Hampshire)
Lost Bridges over Merrimack River on the current alignment of Foundry Street


Amsterdam Bridge (3rd) (Montgomery County, New York)
Built 1843; North span washed away by part of the Caughnawaga Bridge & replaced iwth a bowstring 1865; Washed Away & Replaced 1876
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Mohawk River on Road
Destroyed by flooding

Arlington Green Covered Bridge 45-02-01 (Bennington County, Vermont)
Built 1852; rehabilitated 1979
Covered bridge over Battenkill River on C3023 in Arlington
Open to traffic

Ashland Covered Bridge 08-02-02 (New Castle County, Delaware)
Rehabilitated in 2008
Covered bridge over Red Clay Creek on Barley Mill Road in Ashland
Open to traffic

Ashokan Covered Bridge 32-56-05 (Ulster County, New York)
Built 1885
Town lattice truss bridge over Old Channel Esopus Creek on Footpath
Open to pedestrians only

Ashuelot Covered Bridge 29-03-02 (Cheshire County, New Hampshire)
Built 1864; rehabilitated 1999
Covered bridge over Ashuelot River on Gunn Mountain Road in Winchester
Open to traffic

Auchumpkee Creek Covered Bridge 10-145-02 #2 (Upson County, Georgia)
Built 1892, rebuilt 1997 after it was damaged by a flood.
Lattice through truss bridge over Auchumpkee Creek on Allen Road
Open to pedestrians

B&M - Penacook Upper Covered Bridge (Merrimack County, New Hampshire)
Built 1867; Replaced 1921
Lost Town lattice through truss bridge over Contoocook River on Boston & Maine Railroad
Replaced by a new bridge

Backbone Bridge (Madison County, Iowa)
Built 1878; Burned July 8th, 1914
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Middle River on Road
Destroyed by fire

Baltimore Covered Bridge 45-14-03 (Windsor County, Vermont)
built 1870 by Granville LeLand and Dennis Allen
Lattice through truss bridge
Closed to all traffic

Bangor-Brewer Covered Bridge (Penobscot County, Maine)
Built 1832; Lost to freshet1846; Replaced 1847
Lost covered Town lattice through truss bridge over Penobscot River on Road
Destroyed by flooding

Bartonsville Covered Bridge 45-13-11x (Windham County, Vermont)
Built 1870; rehabilitated 1982; destroyed 2011; Replace with a new bridge 2013 Jan 26
Lost covered bridge over Williams River on C3008 (Lower Bartonsville Rd) in Rockingham
Destroyed by flooding from Hurricane Irene on Aug 28, 2011

Bath/Haverhill Covered Bridge 29-05-04 (Grafton County, New Hampshire)
Built 1827; rehabilitated 1973; rehabilitated 2004
Covered bridge over Ammonoosuc River on NH 135
Open to Pedestrians

Beaverkill Covered Bridge 32-53-02 (Sullivan County, New York)
Built 1865; rehabilitated 1991
Covered bridge over Beaverkill River on TH 30
Open to traffic

Bendo Covered Bridge 32-53-04 (Sullivan County, New York)
It was built from half of the former Livingston Manor Bridge in 1913
Covered bridge over Willowemoc Creek on Conklin Hill Rd.
Open to traffic

Benetka Road Covered Bridge 35-04-12 (Ashtabula County, Ohio)
Built ca. 1900; rehabilitated 1985
Covered bridge over Ashtabula River on Benetka Road
Open to traffic

Bernadotte Covered Bridge (Fulton County, Illinois)
Built 1845; damaged by flood 1915 and replaced
Lost Covered Town lattice through truss bridge over Spoon River on N Old Bridge Road
Replaced by a new bridge

Big Bear Creek Covered Bridge 01-17-03x (Colbert County, Alabama)
Lost Bridge over Big Bear Creek
No longer exists

Blaine Road Covered Bridge 35-04-02x (Ashtabula County, Ohio)
Built 1862; Destroyed by fire 1962
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Ashtabula River on Blaine Road (Green Hill Road)
Destroyed by fire

BM - Hillsborough Covered Bridge (Hillsborough County, New Hampshire)
Built 1903; Abandoned 1979; Destroyed 1985.
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Contoocook River on Boston & Maine RR
Destroyed by arsonists in 1985

Broad Street Bridge (1st) 35-25-17x (Franklin County, Ohio)
Built ca. 1832; Replaced 1870
Lost Covered through truss bridge over Scioto River on Broad Street
Replaced by a new bridge

Brookwood Covered Bridge (Tuscaloosa County, Alabama)
Built ca. 1850; destroyed by fire 1961
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Hurricane Creek on Co Rd 59
Destroyed by fire

Brown Covered Bridge 45-11-09 (Rutland County, Vermont)
Built 1880 by Nichols Powers
Covered bridge over Cold River on Upper Cold River Road in Shrewsbury
Open to one lane traffic

Brundage Bridge 29-05-B (Grafton County, New Hampshire)
Built in 1957 by William Cady for Charles Brundage to provide access to his land across Mill Brook.
Town lattice truss bridge over Mill Brook
Open to pedestrians only

Bulls Covered Bridge 07-03-01 (Litchfield County, Connecticut)
Built 1842; rehabilitated 1969 and 1994
Covered bridge over Housatonic River on Bulls Bridge Road
Open to traffic

Cabin Run Covered Bridge 38-09-10 (Bucks County, Pennsylvania)
Built 1874
Cabin Run Covered Bridge on Covered Bridge Rd over Cabin Run Creek Plumstead Twp, PA


Callender Road Covered Bridge 35-04-24x (Ashtabula County, Ohio)
Built 1870; Burned by owners December 1966
Lost Covered Town lattice truss bridge over Rock Creek (Now Lake Roaming Rock) on Callender Road
Destroyed by fire

Cedar Covered Bridge (1883) (Madison County, Iowa)
Built 1883; Moved 1921 ; Destroyed by arson Sept. 3, 2002
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Cedar Creek on Cedar Covered Bridge Road
Arsoned

Cedar Covered Bridge (2004) (Madison County, Iowa)
Built 2004
Reconstructed covered bridge over Cedar Creek on Cedar Bridge Road
Destroyed by fire on April 15, 2017

Cedar Swamp Bridge 45-01-01x (Addison County, Vermont)
Built 1865, pier added 1969, rehabilitated 1992, 2008; Destroyed by fire 2016
Covered Town lattice through truss bridge over Otter Creek on C2001 in Salisbury
Destroyed by fire 2016

Cedarburg Covered Bridge 49-46-01 (Ozaukee County, Wisconsin)
Built 1876, Center Pier Added 1927, Declared Historic 1940, Bypassed 1962
Lattice through truss bridge over Cedar Creek on Covered Bridge Road
Open to pedestrians

Chance Pond Brook Pedestrian Bridge (Merrimack County, New Hampshire)
Lattice through truss bridge over Chance Pond Brook on Pedestrian Path
Open to pedestrians only

Chequamegon Covered Bridge 49-51-01 (Price County, Wisconsin)
Built 1991
Town lattice truss bridge over South Fork, Flambeau River on Smith Rapids Road
Open to traffic

Chiselville Covered Bridge 45-02-05 (Bennington County, Vermont)
Built 1870
Bridge over Roaring Branch of Batten Kill on Sunderland Hill Rd.
Open to traffic

Cilleyville Covered Bridge 29-07-01 (Merrimack County, New Hampshire)
Built 1887; rehabilitated 2003
Covered bridge over Pleasant Brook in Andover
Closed to all traffic

Clarendon Bridge 33-26-01#2x (Cumberland County, North Carolina)
This was the second of three major bridges built in North Carolina by Town. This was the first offical use of the Town lattice truss as it was developed at this time and pat. during this year.
Lost Town lattice through truss bridge over Cape Fear River on Person St
Destroyed by fire

Clarkson Covered Bridge 01-22-01 (Cullman County, Alabama)
Built 1904 by James Legg. Destroyed by a flood in 1921 and rebuilt in 1922. Rehabilitated in 1975. Posted to the National Register of Historic Places in 1974.
Lattice through truss bridge over Crooked Creek on Central Rd. (CR 1043) at the Clarkson Covered Bridge Park
Open to pedestrians

Claylick Bridge (Franklin County, Pennsylvania)
Replaced 1947
Lost Howe through truss bridge over Licking Creek on Pa 75; Sr 0075 (Fort Loudon Rd)
Replaced by new bridge

Columbus Covered Bridge (Lowndes County, Mississippi)
Built 1843
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Tombigee River on 4th Avenue South
No longer exists

Comstock Covered Bridge 45-06-04 (Franklin County, Vermont)
Built 1883; rehabilitated 2003
Covered Town Lattice through truss bridge over Trout River on Comstock Bridge Rd (C3042) in Montgomery
Open to traffic

Cooley Covered Bridge 45-11-07 (Rutland County, Vermont)
Built in 1849 by Nicholas Powers; rehabilitated 2004
Covered Town lattice through truss bridge over Furnace Brook on C3013 in Pittsford
Open to one lane traffic

Coombs Covered Bridge 29-03-03 (Cheshire County, New Hampshire)
Built 1837; rehabilitated 1997
Covered bridge over Ashuelot River on Coombs Bridge Road in Winchester
Open to traffic

Corbin Covered Bridge 29-10-05 (Sullivan County, New Hampshire)
Built 1845; Destroyed by arson 1993; rebuilt 1994
Covered bridge over Croydon Branch Sugar River on Corbin Bridge Road in Newport
Open to traffic

Cornish-Windsor Covered Bridge 45-14-14 / 29-10-09 (Sullivan County, New Hampshire)
Built 1866; Tolls removed 1943; Rehabilitated 1989
Covered Town Lattice through truss bridge over Connecticut River between Cornish, NH, and Windsor, VT
Open to one-lane traffic

Creamery Covered Bridge 45-13-01 (Windham County, Vermont)
Built 1879; Rehabilitated 2007; Bypassed 2010
Covered bridge over Whetstone Brook on Guilford Street in Brattleboro
Open to pedestrians only

Creek Road Covered Bridge 35-04-05 (Ashtabula County, Ohio)
Built 1880; rehabilitated 1963 & 1995
Covered bridge over Conneaut Creek on Creek Road in Conneaut
Open to traffic

Cripple Deer Creek Covered Bridge 01-17-02x (Colbert County, Alabama)
Built ca.1820
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Cripple Deer Creek on Allsboro Rd
No longer exists

Cromer's Mill Covered Bridge 10-59-01 (Franklin County, Georgia)
Built 1907
Town lattice through truss bridge over Nails Creek on Pearwood Road (Old alignment of Cromer's Bridge Road)
Open to pedestrians

Cutler-Donahoe Covered Bridge (Madison County, Iowa)
Built 1871; relocated in 1970; rehabilitated 1997
Covered bridge over a ditch in Winterset City Park
Open to pedestrians only

CVR - Susquehanna River Covered Bridge (Oldest) (Dauphin County, Pennsylvania)
Built 1839; destroyed by fire 1844
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Susquehanna River on Cumberland Valley Railroad
Destroyed by fire

Delevan Covered Bridge (Cattaraugus County, New York)
Built 1872, Replaced 1921
Lost Town lattice through truss bridge over South Branch Cattaraugus Creek on RT 16
Replaced by a new bridge

Depot Covered Bridge 45-11-06 (Rutland County, Vermont)
Built 1840; Rehabilitated 1974; Steel stringers added 1985
Covered Town Lattice through truss bridge over Otter Creek on Florence Road
Open to traffic

Dillingham Street Covered Bridge (Muscogee County, Georgia)
Built 1832, Rebuilt thice (1841 after the 1938 flood destoryed the original, ?, 1865 after Union troops burned the second bridge.), Replaced 1910
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Chattahoochee River on Road
Replaced by a new bridge

E. & T. Fairbanks & Company Two-Story Covered Bridge (Caledonia County, Vermont)
Built c. 1876; Destroyed by fire 1972
Lost Two-Story Covered Town lattice truss with arches bridge over Sleepers River on Factory crossing
Destroyed by Fire

Eagleville Road Covered Bridge 32-58-01 (Washington County, New York)
Built 1858, major repairs in 2007
Covered bridge over Batten Kill on Eagleville Road
Open to traffic

Easley Covered Bridge 01-05-12 (Blount County, Alabama)
Built 1930; renovated 2012
Covered bridge over Dub Branch of Little Warrior River on Easley Bridge Road in Rosa
Open to all traffic- rebuilt in 2012

East Trumbell Covered Bridge 35-04-20x (Ashtabula County, Ohio)
Replaced 1950
Lost Covered Bridge over Trumbull Creek on Windsor-Mechanicsville Road
Replaced by a new bridge

Edgell Covered Bridge 29-05-11 (Grafton County, New Hampshire)
Built 1885; rehabilitated 1970
Covered bridge over Clay Brook on River Road in Lyme
Open to traffic

Elder Mill Bridge 10-108-01 (Oconee County, Georgia)
Built 1897
Covered Town Lattice bridge over Rose Creek on Elder Mill Road
Open to traffic

Elkin Covered Bridge (Yadkin County, North Carolina)
Built 1873; Replaced 1913
Lost Town lattice through truss bridge over Yadkin River on Road
Replaced by a new bridge

Erpf Covered Bridge 32-13-08 (Delaware County, New York)
Built 1964
Town lattice truss bridge over Dry Brook on Erpf Road
Open to all traffic

Erwinna Covered Bridge 38-09-04 (Bucks County, Pennsylvania)
Built 1871
Town lattice truss bridge over Roaring Rocks Creek on Geigel Hill Road
Open to traffic

Eufala Covered Bridge (Barbour County, Alabama)
Built 1839, Replaced 1925
Lost Town lattice through truss bridge over Chattahoochee River on Raod
No longer exists

Euharlee Covered Bridge 10-08-01 (Bartow County, Georgia)
Built 1886 by Washington W. King and Jonathan H. Burke; made obsolete by new bridge in 1980
Covered bridge over Euharlee Creek on Covered Bridge Road in Euharlee
Open to pedestrians only

Fairfax Covered Bridge 45-06-02 (Franklin County, Vermont)
Built 1865; rehabilitated 1990
Covered Town lattice through truss bridge over Mill Brook on Maple St (C3035) in Fairfax
Open to traffic

Fitches Covered Bridge 32-13-02 #2 (Delaware County, New York)
Built 1870; relocated 1885, replaced 2001
Covered bridge over West Branch Delaware River on Fitches Bridge Road
Open to traffic

Florence Covered Bridge (Stewart County, Georgia)
Built 1836, Destroyed by flooding 1846
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Chattahoochie River on Road
Destroyed by flooding

Frankenfield Covered Bridge 38-09-09 (Bucks County, Pennsylvania)
Built 1872; rehabilitated 1978
Steel stringer bridge over Tinicum Creek on Cafferty Road
Open to traffic

Fuller Covered Bridge 45-06-05 #2 (Franklin County, Vermont)
Built 1890; rehabilitated 2000
Covered Town Lattice through truss bridge over Black Falls Brook on Fuller Bridge Road (C2001) in Montgomery
Open to traffic

Garfield Covered Bridge (Lamoille County, Vermont)
Built 1870; Bypassed by a culvert 1965; Sold to developer 1971; split in half and removed
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Green River on Carpenter Hill road
Removed. Half of bridge lost, other half extant.

Gilliland's Covered Bridge 01-28-C (Etowah County, Alabama)
Originally built 1899 over Little Wills Creek near Reece City, AL. Bridge restored and relocated to present day location in 1967.
Lattice through truss bridge over A small pond in Noccalula Falls Park on a pedestrian trail in Noccalula Falls Park off of AL 211 in Gadsden
Open to pedestrians

Glens Falls Covered Bridge (Saratoga County, New York)
Built 1868; Replaced 1890
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Hudson River on Road
Destroyed by flooding

Goddard Covered Bridge 17-35-06 (Fleming County, Kentucky)
Goddard Covered Bridge is the only Town Lattice Truss Covered Bridge in KY. Original building date unknown but design patented in 1820. Bridge placed on National Register of Historic Places in 1975. Bridge restored in 2006.
Covered bridge over Sand Lick Creek on KY 3110
Open to traffic

Gorham Covered Bridge 45-11-04 (Rutland County, Vermont)
Built in 1842 by Abraham Owen and Nicholas Powers; completely rebuilt in 2004
Covered Town Lattice through truss bridge over Otter Creek on C3006 in Proctor
Open to traffic

Graham Road Covered Bridge 35-04-13 (Ashtabula County, Ohio)
Built 1867 over East Fork Ashtabula River; relocated to dry land in 1972
Covered bridge over dry ground on Graham Road, northwest of Pierpont
Open to pedestrians only

Grant Mills Covered Bridge 32-56-06 (Ulster County, New York)
Built 1902; rehabilitated 1992
Covered bridge over Mill Brook on Mill Brook Road
Open to pedestrians only

Green Island Bridge (Original) (Rensselaer County, New York)
Built 1835; Eastern side of the bridge burned due to sparks from a train in May 1862 and was replaced; Replaced 1884
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Hudson River on Rensselaer & Saratoga Railway & Road
Replaced by a new bridge

Green River Covered Bridge 45-13-04 (Windham County, Vermont)
Built 1870; rehabilitated 1965, 2016
Covered bridge over Green River on C2001 in Guilford
Open to traffic

Hall Covered Bridge 45-13-07 #2 (Windham County, Vermont)
Built 1982 replicating the original 1867 bridge
Lattice through truss bridge over Saxton's River on Hall Brige Rd
Open to one lane traffic with a weight limit

Halpin Covered Bridge 45-01-03 (Addison County, Vermont)
Built 1824; Rehabilitated 1994
Covered Town lattice through truss bridge over Muddy Branch of the New Haven River
Open to traffic

Hammond Covered Bridge 45-11-05 (Rutland County, Vermont)
Built 1842 by Asa Nourse; Washed away & restored 1927; bypassed 1960
Covered Town Lattice through truss bridge over Otter Creek on the old alignment of Kendall Hill Road
Intact but closed to all traffic

Harmon Covered Bridge 38-32-04 (Indiana County, Pennsylvania)
Bypassed in 1985
Covered Bridge over Plum Creek on Bypassed sect of Donahue Rd. (TR488)
Preserved as a historical structure in a park-like setting

Henry Covered Bridge 45-02-02 #2 (Bennington County, Vermont)
Built 1840; replaced with new bridge 1989
Covered bridge over Walloomsac River on C3008 in Bennington
Open to traffic

Henry Farm Covered Bridge 38-45-05 (Monroe County, Pennsylvania)
Built 1988
Town lattice truss bridge over Butz Run


Hogback Covered Bridge (Madison County, Iowa)
Built 1884; rehabilitated 1992
Covered bridge over North River on Hogback Bridge Road
Open to pedestrians only

Holliwell Covered Bridge (Madison County, Iowa)
Built 1880; rehabilitated 1995
Covered bridge over Middle River, southeast of Winterset
Open to pedestrians only

Hopkins Covered Bridge 45-06-01 #2 (Franklin County, Vermont)
Built 1875; rehabilitated 1998
Covered Town Lattice through truss bridge over Trout River on C3017 in Enosburg
Open to traffic

Hopkinton Covered Railroad Bridge 29-07-07 (Merrimack County, New Hampshire)
Built 1889, Washed off abutments and restored 1936 & 1938; Abandoned 1962; Restored 1990
Double Lattice through truss bridge over Contoocook River on former Boston & Maine Railroad
Open to pedestrians

Horton's Mill Covered Bridge 01-05-07 (Blount County, Alabama)
Built 1934; rehabilitated 1974, rehabilitated 2012-2013
Town lattice through truss covered bridge over Black Warrior River on Horton Mill Road
Open to traffic one lane

Howard's Bridge 10-109-01 (Oglethorpe County, Georgia)
Georgia Historical Society marker says bridge was built 1904-1905
Covered lattice bridge over Red Oak Creek
Closed to all traffic

Hutchins Covered Bridge 45-06-07 #2 (Franklin County, Vermont)
Built 1883; rehabilitated 2009
Covered bridge over South Branch Trout River on Hutchins Bridge Rd (C3027) in Montgomery
Open to traffic

Imes Covered Bridge (Madison County, Iowa)
Built 1870; relocated in 1887 and 1977; rehabilitated 1997
Covered bridge at Imes Bridge Park in St. Charles
Open to pedestrians only

Jack O'Lantern Resort Covered Bridge 29-05-18 (Grafton County, New Hampshire)
Built 1986
Town lattice truss bridge over pond on Private trail
Open to private traffic

Kelloggsville Covered Bridge 35-04-08x (Ashtabula County, Ohio)
Built in 1867 by Mr. Potter (First name unknown); Replaced 1947
Lost Covered Town lattice truss bridge over Ashtabula River on Stanhope-Kelloggsville Road
Replaced by a new bridge

Keniston Covered Bridge 29-07-02 (Merrimack County, New Hampshire)
Built 1882
Covered bridge over Blackwater River on Bridge Road in Andover
Open to traffic

Kilgore Mill Bridge 10-07-04x (Walton County, Georgia)
Built 1874, burned by arsonists April 23, 1993
Covered Town lattice truss bridge over Appalachee River on Briscoe Mill Rd. (Carl Davis Rd.)
Lost, burned by arsonists April 23, 1993

Kingsley Covered Bridge 45-11-03 (Rutland County, Vermont)
Built 1836 by Timothy Horton; rehabilitated 1987
Covered bridge over Mill River on C3039 in Clarendon
Open to traffic