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Town lattice truss

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1820, Jan 28 - Ithiel Town was awarded a patent for a lattice truss used in bridge construction. Unlike other timber bridge trusses used at that time, Town's design depended on lap joints secured with treenails rather than precision mortising. This decreased the dependency on high-skill labor and decreased construction time. Though there have been many variations implemented by various builders across the many, many years, characteristics of a typical truss web are: diagonals at about 45 degrees from horizontal, each diagonal intersecting four crossing diagonals for a total of six joints per diagonal, two lower chords - one at the diagonal ends and the other at the lowest diagonal intersection, a single top chord, and floor beams resting on the bottom chord. The use of a lattice continued well beyond timber bridges and appears in sub-member construction of steel struts, chords, and sway braces.


3 Mile Covered Bridge 45-01-15x (Addison County, Vermont)
Built 1836; Arches added c.1860; Closed & Burned 1952
Lost Town lattice truss covered bridge over Otter Creek on 3 Mile Bridge Road
Destroyed by fire

A. Frederick Oberlin Bridge (New Haven County, Connecticut)
Built 1979 by students of the Eli Whitney Technical School.
Town lattice truss bridge over Mill River on White Trail Footpath in Whitneyville.
Open to pedestrians only

Ableman Curve Covered Bridge (Sauk County, Wisconsin)
Bypassed and removed 1923
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Baraboo River on Road
Removed

Ableman Station Covered Bridge (Sauk County, Wisconsin)
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Baraboo River on Road
Replaced by a new bridge

Adelphi Covered Bridge 35-65-05x (Pickaway County, Ohio)
Bridge was subject to a failed dynamiting in 1949
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Salt Creek on OH 180
Replaced by a new bridge

Alexauken Creek Covered Bridge 30-10-14x (Hunterdon County, New Jersey)
Lost through truss covered bridge over Alexauken Creek on Main Street
No longer exists (due to arson)

Allendale Covered Bridge, NY-23-03x (Jefferson County, New York)
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over South Branch Sandy Creek
Replaced by a new bridge

Amoskeag Company Bridge (Hillsborough County, New Hampshire)
Lost Bridges over Merrimack River on the current alignment of Foundry Street


Amsterdam Bridge (1843) 32-29-02x (Montgomery County, New York)
Built 1843; North span washed away by part of the Caughnawaga Bridge & replaced iwth a bowstring 1865; Washed Away & Replaced 1876
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Mohawk River on Road
Destroyed by flooding

Aquaduct Covered Bridge 38-09-59x (Bucks County, Pennsylvania)
Built 1848
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Hough's Creek on Upper River Road (Abandoned ?)
Replaced by a new bridge in a different location

Arlington Green Covered Bridge 45-02-01 (Bennington County, Vermont)
Built 1852; rehabilitated 1979
Covered bridge over Battenkill River on C3023 in Arlington
Open to traffic

Ashland Covered Bridge 08-02-02 (New Castle County, Delaware)
Rehabilitated in 2008
Covered bridge over Red Clay Creek on Barley Mill Road in Ashland
Open to traffic

Ashokan Covered Bridge 32-56-05 (Ulster County, New York)
Built 1885
Town lattice truss bridge over Old Channel Esopus Creek on Footpath
Open to pedestrians only

Ashuelot Covered Bridge 29-03-02 (Cheshire County, New Hampshire)
Built 1864; rehabilitated 1999
Covered bridge over Ashuelot River on Gunn Mountain Road in Winchester
Open to traffic

Auchumpkee Creek Covered Bridge 10-145-02 #2 (Upson County, Georgia)
Built 1892, rebuilt 1997 after it was damaged by a flood.
Lattice through truss bridge over Auchumpkee Creek on Allen Road
Open to pedestrians

Austin's Covered Bridge 32-13-37x (Delaware County, New York)
Built c1870
Lost Town lattice truss covered bridge over East Branch Delaware River on CO 38
Replaced by a new bridge

Ayers Road Covered Bridge 29-10-35x (Sullivan County, New Hampshire)
Lost Town lattice truss covered bridge over Sugar River on Ayers Road
Collapsed

B&M - Penacook Upper Covered Bridge (Merrimack County, New Hampshire)
Built 1867; Replaced 1921
Lost Town lattice through truss bridge over Contoocook River on Boston & Maine Railroad
Replaced by a new bridge

Backbone Bridge (Madison County, Iowa)
Built 1878; Burned July 8th, 1914
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Middle River on Road
Destroyed by fire

Bagley Covered Bridge 29-07-06x (Merrimack County, New Hampshire)
Built c1830
Lost Lattice through truss covered bridge over Warner River on Road.
No longer exists

Baker River Covered Bridge 29-05-96x (Grafton County, New Hampshire)
Lost Town lattice truss covered bridge over Baker River on Main Street
Replaced by a new bridge

Ballville Bridge (1858) 35-72-02x (Sandusky County, Ohio)
Built 1858; replaced 1924
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Sandusky River on Tiffin Road (CR 53)
Replaced by a new bridge

Baltimore Covered Bridge 45-14-03 (Windsor County, Vermont)
built 1870
Lattice through truss bridge in Springfield.
Open to pedestrians only

Bangor-Brewer Covered Bridge 19-10-06x (Penobscot County, Maine)
Built 1832; Lost to freshet1846; Replaced 1847
Lost covered Town lattice through truss bridge over Penobscot River on Road
Destroyed by flooding

Banister River Covered Bridge (Pittsylvania County, Virginia)
Built Unknown
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Banister River on RT 29
Replaced by a new bridge

Barner's Covered Bridge 32-48-07x (Schoharie County, New York)
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Cobleskill Creek on Grand Street
Replaced by a new bridge

Barnstead Covered Bridge 29-07-67x (Merrimack County, New Hampshire)
Lost Through truss covered bridge over Suncook River
Replaced by a new bridge

Bartonsville Covered Bridge 45-13-11#2 (Windham County, Vermont)
Replaced an identical bridge lost in 2011.
Town lattice truss bridge over Williams River on C3008
Open to traffic

Bartonsville Covered Bridge 45-13-11x (Windham County, Vermont)
Built 1870; rehabilitated 1982; destroyed 2011; Replace with a new bridge 2013 Jan 26
Lost covered bridge over Williams River on C3008 (Lower Bartonsville Rd) in Rockingham
Destroyed by flooding from Hurricane Irene on Aug 28, 2011

Bath/Haverhill Covered Bridge 29-05-04 (Grafton County, New Hampshire)
Built 1827; rehabilitated 1973; Bypassed 1998; rehabilitated 2004
Covered bridge over Ammonoosuc River on NH 135
Open to Pedestrians

Beards Covered Bridge 29-05-92#2x / 45-03-50#2x (Grafton County, New Hampshire)
Built 1877 by Phillip Paddleford; Replaced 1937
Lost Town lattice truss covered bridge over Connecticut River on North Monroe Road
Replaced by a new bridge

Beaver Kill Covered Bridge 32-53-02 (Sullivan County, New York)
Built 1865; rehabilitated 1991 and 2016
Covered bridge over Beaverkill River on Campsite Road (TH 30)
Open to traffic

Bell Schoolhouse Covered Bridge (Indiana County, Pennsylvania)
Built in 1912; Removed and Replaced in 1948
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over South Branch Plum Creek on Five Points Road (SR 4006)
Replaced by a new bridge

Bendo Covered Bridge 32-53-04 (Sullivan County, New York)
It was built from half of the former Livingston Manor Bridge in 1913
Covered bridge over Willowemoc Creek on Conklin Hill Rd.
Open to traffic

Benetka Road Covered Bridge 35-04-12 (Ashtabula County, Ohio)
Built ca. 1900; rehabilitated 1985
Covered bridge over Ashtabula River on Benetka Road
Open to traffic

Bentzel's Mill Covered Bridge (York County, Pennsylvania)
Lost Town lattice truss covered bridge over Little Conewago Creek on Greenbriar Road
Destroyed by Hurricane Agnes in 1972

Bernadotte Covered Bridge (Fulton County, Illinois)
Built 1845 by Joseph Dykes; damaged by flood 1915 and replaced
Lost Covered Town lattice through truss bridge over Spoon River on N Old Bridge Road
Replaced by a new bridge

Bethel Covered Bridge 19-09-08x (Oxford County, Maine)
Built 1868-1869; replaced 1927
Lost Town lattice through truss covered bridge over Androscoggin River on Church Street in Bethel.
Replaced by a new bridge

Biddle Island Bridge (North) Covered Bridge (Cass County, Indiana)
Built 1838; Replaced in 1870
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Wabash River (North Channel) on Third Street
Replaced by a new bridge

Biddle Island Bridge (South) Covered Bridge (Cass County, Indiana)
Built 1838; replaced 1870
Lost covered Town lattice through truss bridge over Wabash River (South Channel) on Third Street
Replaced by a new bridge

Big Bear Creek Covered Bridge 01-17-03x (Colbert County, Alabama)
Lost Bridge over Big Bear Creek
No longer exists

Big Reed Island Covered Bridge (Carroll County, Virginia)
Built in 1851; Replaced in 1939
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Big Reed Island Creek on RT 221
Replaced by a new bridge

Billings Covered Bridge 45-11-45x (Rutland County, Vermont)
Built 1831; burned 1952.
Lost Town lattice truss covered bridge over Otter Creek on Park Street
Destroyed by arson in 1952

Bingaman Covered Bridge 38-28-05x (Franklin County, Pennsylvania)
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Conococheague Creek on Worleytown Road
Replaced by a new bridge (in a different location)

Blaine Road Covered Bridge 35-04-02x (Ashtabula County, Ohio)
Built 1862; Destroyed by fire 1962
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Ashtabula River on Blaine Road (Green Hill Road)
Destroyed by fire

Blue Stone Covered Bridge (Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania)
Built Unknown
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Wissahickon Creek on Wissahickon Drive (Primitive Road)
Replaced by a new bridge (on a walking trail)

BM - Bennington Covered Bridge 29-06-03x (Hillsborough County, New Hampshire)
Built 1877
Lost Through truss covered bridge over Contoocook River on Boston & Maine Hillsborough Branch
Destroyed by fire

BM - Hillsborough Covered Bridge (Hillsborough County, New Hampshire)
Built 1903; Pier washed out 1938; Abandoned 1979; Destroyed 1985.
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Contoocook River on Boston & Maine RR
Destroyed by arsonists in 1985

BM - Hopkinton Covered Railroad Bridge 29-07-07 (Merrimack County, New Hampshire)
Built 1889, Washed off abutments and restored 1936 & 1938; Abandoned 1962; Restored 1990; Major rehab 2003; Fire suppression and fire proofing 2009; Removal of center shelving 2017; Erosion control fixes, minor siding repairs, new staining 2019
Double Lattice through truss bridge over Contoocook River on former Boston & Maine Railroad
Open to pedestrians

BM - Lindsley Bridge (old) (Caledonia County, Vermont)
Built 1891; Replaced 1921
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Passumpsic River on Boston & Maine Railroad
Replaced by a new bridge

Boxshop Covered Bridge 29-03-29x (Cheshire County, New Hampshire)
Lost Town lattice truss covered bridge over Ashuelot River on road
Replaced by a new bridge

Brasher Falls Covered Bridge 35-45-01x (St. Lawrence County, New York)
Built 1861
Lost Town lattice truss covered bridge over Saint Regis River on Main Street
Replaced by a new bridge

Bridge Street Covered Bridge 07-05-25x (New Haven County, Connecticut)
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Naugatuck River on Bridge Street in Ansonia.
Lost to fire and replaced by a new bridge

Bridge Street Covered Bridge 32-29-06x (Montgomery County, New York)
Built 1841; replaced 1897 with Baltimore through truss
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Mohawk River on Bridge Street
Replaced by a new bridge

Bridgewater Falls Bridge 07-03-14x (Litchfield County, Connecticut)
Replaced in 1895 by a lenticular through truss bridge
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Housatonic River on Pumpkin Hill Road in New Milford.
Replaced by a new bridge

Broad Street Bridge (1832) 35-25-17x (Franklin County, Ohio)
Built ca. 1832; Replaced 1870
Lost Covered through truss bridge over Scioto River on Broad Street
Replaced by a new bridge

Brodhead's Bridge 32-56-12x (Ulster County, New York)
Demolished 1913 for construction of Ashokan Reservoir
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Esopus Creek
Demolished

Brooklyn Covered Bridge (Randolph County, North Carolina)
Built Unknown
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Deep River on SR 2615
Replaced by a new bridge

Brookside Covered Bridge 45-13-46x (Windham County, Vermont)
Damaged by flooding in 1936; lost to another flood in 1938.
Lost Town lattice truss covered bridge over Rock River on Hunter Brook Road
Destroyed by flooding

Brookwood Covered Bridge (Tuscaloosa County, Alabama)
Built ca. 1850; destroyed by fire 1961
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Hurricane Creek on Co Rd 59
Destroyed by fire

Brown Covered Bridge 45-11-09 (Rutland County, Vermont)
Built 1880 by Nichols Powers
Covered bridge over Cold River on Upper Cold River Road in Shrewsbury
Open to one lane traffic

Brundage Bridge 29-05-B (Grafton County, New Hampshire)
Built in 1957 by William Cady for Charles Brundage to provide access to his land across Mill Brook.
Town lattice truss bridge over Mill Brook
Open to pedestrians only

Bulls Covered Bridge 07-03-01 (Litchfield County, Connecticut)
Built 1842; rehabilitated 1969 and 1994
Covered bridge over Housatonic River on Bulls Bridge Road in Kent
Open to traffic

Bunker Bridge 32-11-03x (Columbia County, New York)
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Claverack Creek on Union Turnpike (NY Rte.66)
Replaced by a new bridge

Bunker Hill Covered Bridge 38-38-12x (Lebanon County, Pennsylvania)
Lost Burr arch covered bridge over Little Swatara Creek on S Lancaster Street
Replaced by a new bridge in 1950

Burney's Covered Bridge (Randolph County, North Carolina)
Unknown date of construction; Replaced after 1933.
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Uwharrie River on SR 1105
Replaced by a new bridge

Burnt Covered Bridge (Original Location) (Forsyth County, Georgia)
Unsure of construction date; Moved to Mashburn Estate in 1958.
Town lattice truss bridge over Settendown Creek on Burnt Bridge Road
In storage or disassembled and moved to Mashburn Estate in 1958

Butterfield Covered Bridge 45-14-07x (Windsor County, Vermont)
Lost Town lattice truss covered bridge over Black River on road
Removed but not replaced

Buzzard Roost Covered Bridge 01-17-01x (Colbert County, Alabama)
Built ca 1860; destroyed by fire July 15, 1972
Lost Through truss bridge over Buzzard Roost Creek on Co Rd 15
Destroyed by fire

Cabin Run Covered Bridge 38-09-10 (Bucks County, Pennsylvania)
Built 1874
Cabin Run Covered Bridge on Covered Bridge Rd over Cabin Run Creek Plumstead Twp, PA


Callender Road Covered Bridge 35-04-24x (Ashtabula County, Ohio)
Built 1870; Burned by owners December 1966
Lost Covered Town lattice truss bridge over Rock Creek (Now Lake Roaming Rock) on Callender Road
Destroyed by fire

Canal Greenway Covered Bridge (Licking County, Ohio)
Built 1991
Town lattice truss bridge over Unnamed tributary of South Fork of Licking river on Canal Greenway Trail
Open to pedestrians only

Caribou Crossing Covered Bridge 19-02-11#2x (Aroostook County, Maine)
Built in 1885; Replaced in 1932
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Aroostook River on US RT 1
Replaced by a new bridge

Cartersville Covered Bridge (Bartow County, Georgia)
Built in 1883 by W. W. King; Removed and replaced in a different location; old site abandoned
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Etowah River on Old alignment of RT 293
Replaced by a new bridge in a different location. Old location abandoned.

Cedar Covered Bridge (1883) (Madison County, Iowa)
Built 1883; Moved 1921 ; Destroyed by arson Sept. 3, 2002. Destroyed by arson again 4/15/2017
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Cedar Creek on Cedar Covered Bridge Road
Rebuilt June 2019

Cedar Covered Bridge (2004) (Madison County, Iowa)
Built 2004; Burned 2017
Reconstructed covered bridge over Cedar Creek on Cedar Bridge Road
Destroyed by fire on April 15, 2017

Cedar Falls Covered Bridge (Randolph County, North Carolina)
Built in 1887; Replaced after 1935
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Deep River on SR 2221
Replaced by a new bridge

Cedar Swamp Bridge 45-01-01x (Addison County, Vermont)
Built 1865, pier added 1969, rehabilitated 1992, 2008; Destroyed by fire 2016
Covered Town lattice through truss bridge over Otter Creek on C2001 in Salisbury
Destroyed by fire 2016

Cedarburg Covered Bridge 49-46-01 (Ozaukee County, Wisconsin)
Built 1876, Center Pier Added 1927, Declared Historic 1940, Bypassed 1962
Lattice through truss bridge over Cedar Creek on Covered Bridge Road
Open to pedestrians

Center Village Covered Bridge 45-02-13x (Bennington County, Vermont)
Built c1834
Lost Town lattice truss covered bridge over Hoosic River on Main Street
Destroyed by flooding in 1949

Centre Bridge (1830) 38-09-39#3x / 30-10-03#3x (Hunterdon County, New Jersey)
Half of the 1830 structure washed away in 1841. Either half or all of the bridge was built (or rebuilt) in 1841. Lost to a lightning strike started fire on July 22, 1923
Lost Bridge over Delaware River on Bridge Street
No longer exists

Chain Covered Bridge 38-09-62x (Bucks County, Pennsylvania)
Built in 1830; Rebuilt in 1865; Removed and Replaced in 1932
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Neshaminy Creek on Second Street Pike
Replaced by a new bridge

Chamblees Mill Covered Bridge (Blount County, Alabama)
Built Unknown
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Copeland Creek on Chamblees Mill Road
Replaced by a new bridge

Chance Pond Brook Pedestrian Bridge (Merrimack County, New Hampshire)
Lattice through truss bridge over Chance Pond Brook on Pedestrian Path
Open to pedestrians only

Charlemont Covered Bridge 21-06-57x (Franklin County, Massachusetts)
Built 1838, closed after 1939 flood and replaced in 1944
Lost through truss covered bridge over Deerfield River on Hawley Road
Replaced by a new bridge

Chattahoochee River Covered Bridge (Barbour County, Alabama)
Built in 1838; Lost in 1865 during Civil War; Rebuilt in 1867; Replaced in 1924.
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Chattahoochee River on (May have been Dillingham Street)
Replaced by a new bridge

Chequamegon Covered Bridge 49-51-01 (Price County, Wisconsin)
Built 1991
Town lattice truss bridge over South Fork, Flambeau River on Smith Rapids Road
Open to traffic

Cheraw Covered Bridge (Marlboro County, South Carolina)
Lost Town lattice truss covered bridge over Great Pee Dee River on Powe Street
Replaced by a new bridge after 1908 flood

Cherry Hill Covered Bridge (Erie County, Pennsylvania)
Built in 1870 by Jay Sherman; Replaced in 1929.
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over West Branch Conneaut Creek on Route 6N
Replaced by a new bridge in 1929

Cherrystone Creek Covered Bridge (Pittsylvania County, Virginia)
Unknown date of construction; Replaced in 1927.
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Cherrystone Creek on RT 29 (former RT 14)
Replaced by a new bridge

Cheshire Toll Bridge (Sullivan County, New Hampshire)
Built 1806? Purchased in 1897 by the Springfield Electric Railway Company and replaced.
Lost Lattice Through truss over Connecticut River on Claremont Road.
Replaced by a new bridge

Chicopee River Covered Bridge (Hampden County, Massachusetts)
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Chicopee River on Springfield Street
Replaced by a new bridge

Chiselville Covered Bridge 45-02-05 (Bennington County, Vermont)
Built 1870 by Daniel Oatman; Damaged by overweight truck 1971; Rehabilitated 1973
Town Lattice Truss Bridge over Roaring Branch of Batten Kill on Sunderland Hill Rd.
Open to traffic

Church Hill Covered Bridge 38-09-22x (Bucks County, Pennsylvania)
Built in 1937; Lost in 1937; any replacement bridge is under the waters of Lake Nockamixon
Town lattice truss bridge over Tohickon Creek on Lost section of Old Bethlehem Pike
Inundated - Covered Bridge and any replacement is under the waters of Lake Nockamixon

Cilleyville Covered Bridge 29-07-01 (Merrimack County, New Hampshire)
Built 1887; rehabilitated 2003
Covered bridge over Pleasant Brook in Andover
Closed to all traffic

Circleville Bridge (1837) (Pickaway County, Ohio)
Built 1837 by Circleville Bridge Co.; burned March 21, 1881
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Scioto River on Current-day route of US 22
Replaced by a new bridge

Claremont Toll Covered Bridge 29-10-13x / 45-14-134x (Sullivan County, New Hampshire)
Lost Town lattice truss bridge over Connecticut River on Main Street
Destroyed by ice in 1901 and replaced by a new bridge

Clarendon Bridge 33-26-01#2x (Cumberland County, North Carolina)
This was the second of three major bridges built in North Carolina by Town. This was the first offical use of the Town lattice truss as it was developed at this time and pat. during this year.
Lost Town lattice through truss bridge over Cape Fear River on Person St
Destroyed by fire

Clarkson Covered Bridge 01-22-01 (Cullman County, Alabama)
Built 1904 by James Legg. Destroyed by a flood in 1921 and rebuilt in 1922. Rehabilitated in 1975. Posted to the National Register of Historic Places in 1974.
Lattice through truss bridge over Crooked Creek on Central Rd. (CR 1043) at the Clarkson Covered Bridge Park
Open to pedestrians

Claylick Covered Bridge (Franklin County, Pennsylvania)
Replaced 1947
Lost Howe through truss bridge over Licking Creek on Pa 75; Sr 0075 (Fort Loudon Rd)
Replaced by new bridge in 1947