Seems to me I remember as a child this bridge either getting widened or replaced.. late 1960s/70s
Does anyone have any updated information on how frequently the P&W runs trains over the Holcomb Creek Trestle now that the shortcut has been built in Wilksboro (just east of Banks)? I have only been able to get out there on Friday nights to see the train crossing the trestle, but if they are running during the day now, that would be great to see.
Do you know where I could find info/photos of the original building of the bridge?
Absolutely! I had missed this detail on this bridge last time I viewed it. Look at the sway bracing, this appears to have been reused and altered, as empty rivet holes and splices indicate. I assume the bridge was widened slightly and it also appears some verticals and endposts were strengthened.
The bridge should be properly described as an 1884 bridge rehabilitated/altered in 1901. As such, it is among the older truss bridges in Oregon.
Plate says 1884 but the portal says 1901. I'm guessing this means the bridge was built in 1884 and reconstructed in 1901? Thoughts?
It is amazing at the major films that were filmed there.
Thanks Mike, that definitely explains the odd appearance I was seeing in the aerial images!
The eastern approach looks like it has steel bents, not concrete piers as pictured. Does anyone (Mike) have photos of the east approach substructure?
I recently visited this Conde McCullough Bridge and tunnel. It was outstanding.
The covered bridge isn't added yet.
Here's the info so you can add it.
A.S. Miller & Sons is the preexisting builder category.
You can watch a McKenzie River Trust documentary on McKenzie River Covered Bridges here. Its cool. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ErXyF6B0qp4 It shows clips of both bridges that I include here from screen shots, the covered and the railroad. I suppose the covered actually needs an entry? And the reasoning for the covered bridges here makes sense, protection from the elements let them last longer.
$26,000 has been raised out of $100,000 needed for railing, beautiful BACH Steel gates and decking. The purchase order for the main gate, the Northern Gateway to Springfield will be sent this week to Nels. They have designed a beautiful laced, riveted, rosetted, gate that goes perfectly with the bridge. We have asked the University of Oregon for critique, their preservation class with Christopher Bell and Don Petting met at the bridge at the end of September.
We are on site and working it. In the meantime, get ready to check out the Springfield Des Arc page, work commences soon. Nels is checking into final details in Arkansas.
These are my people. One branch of the family moved to the Yakima Valley. Further descendants were Canadian pioneers.
Wasnt there a train derailment on the bridge back in the day and isnt the train still underwater to this day.
Just a little TLC - Timber and Land CleanUp...
Feel free to print this on card stock, send them to your friends. I've found that trading cards, post cards, bookmarks are kind of fun to do when we are going somewhere. A quick snap shot of the Workin' Bridges of today taking on a project that we are not sure where it will go. Will we be the interim owner? Will we be able to develop the heritage park idea that is emerging with preservation via ownership? Those are the questions swirling at hq these days as we finish up and prepare to lift Martin Road, waiting patiently for the engineering for the bowstring move.
Finishing up the details for Dy & Anna's (the advance team) trip to Oregon next week to meet with interested folks in Springfield and Eugene for a couple of days. I'll be posting the press release with more info on where and when they will be around tomorrow but plan on the Chamber of Commerce in Springfield, Oregon at 2:00 next Wednesday for the public and any interested folks to get their ideas on the idea board. Dy will also be presenting at the Springfield Historic Commission on Tuesday at 5:30.
From what I can find the history of the bridge is as follows....
Approaches replaced: 1953
Approaches widened, added and modified various years in 1960's & 70's.
Main spans replaced: 1982-84.
These dates are all based off the available plan sheets in ODOT's system.
I hope this helps clear up any questions.
I will check into this date issue when I get a chance. I'll be doing an inspection on the replacement bridge soon.
I can assure you that the bridge was not torn down in 1969. I was a resident of Salem from 1975-80. I last drove over that particular bridge in Nov-80 as I sadly moved south to Cali.
I remember walking across the bridge in 76 as a big truck drove over. The bridge shook so much as to make me nervous and wonder if the bridge was past its time.
I also remember the traffic was always backed up during morning rush hour adding additional weight to the already stressed bridge. I often waited and watch the light cycle 3 times before I got across the bridge.
I can assure you that the demo date in this article is incorrect.
It's an Invitation to all Bridge Hunters in the Oregon/Washington area.
Please come join in the celebration from 4-7 pm Monday, June 13th at Hayden Bridge on Marcola Road in Springfield, Oregon. Some remarks at 5:45 as we toast to the past and wave to the future.
Be part of the planning for the future of this bridge. More was revealed. You guys don't know how hard it was being quiet during the negotiations on this one. Talk about corporate! We are grateful to Weyerhaeuser for their generous donation that gets the planning started.
That's the point when one goes, "Oh dear, we just bought another bridge!"
and then one goes "SLAP, IT'S A WHIPPLE!... a genuine old fantastic cast iron truss...."
and it is Bridge of the Year 2016 on Bridgehunter. this is a win for all of us on this site. thank you all for your insites and contributions, it's how we find out. Thanks to Mike Goff who let us use any of his pictures.
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Grinnell, Iowa • Holt, Michigan •
The North Skunk River Greenbelt Association’s (NSRGA) Workin' Bridges is delighted to announce that Weyerhaeuser Company has agreed to a solution to preserve historic Hayden Railroad Bridge which spans the scenic McKenzie River, in Springfield, Oregon. The Hayden Bridge is a rare 1882 Whipple Truss bridge built of wrought and cast iron members. It is in excellent condition.
In 2015, Workin’ Bridges began working with Weyerhaeuser to consider options for the disposition of the bridge. After nearly a year, a mutually acceptable solution for the Hayden Bridge was developed.
Weyerhaeuser sold the bridge to the Iowa-based non-profit corporation for $1. The company also donated the land that the bridge sits on along with a generous cash allocation of $25,000. The funds will be used for planning and preserving the bridge, and designing the park land around it. This will allow the bridge to continue to cross the McKenzie River at its present location.
On June 13th, Diane Roth, President of NSRGA, Julie Bowers and Nels Raynor co-founders of Workin’ Bridges, will be in Springfield, Oregon to accept title to the property.
Workin' Bridges will be hosting a picnic at the bridge from 4 until 7 p.m. "We hope to meet many people, and will be announcing the team that will be going to work immediately gathering community input on designing and planning for the Hayden Bridge and property. We would love to see many bridge lovers on Monday to celebrate preservation." stated Bowers, Executive Director of NSRGA.
"Hayden Bridge is one of the prettiest bridges I've ever had the pleasure of walking on and I look forward to preserving it. Of all the bridges I've been involved with, this one deserves to be in a museum," stated Nels Raynor - Owner, BACH Steel and co-founder Workin' Bridges.
“We are pleased to find a solution that preserves Hayden Bridge,” said Greg Miller, Government Relations Manager, Weyerhaeuser Company.
Generally, NSRGA will be the interim owner of the bridge, satisfying the insurance and liability requirements, providing the expert restoration and engineering required, and finding the long term owners or a trail system that would take this on.
“We have to go into every project knowing that we are the owner, maybe for life in order to satisfy preservation covenants, and we look forward to helping find the best future for this span in this area. Now the conversation begins on what this historic bridge park will look like", said Julie Bowers.
“We look forward to bringing to the table officials from Springfield, Lane County and preservation officials at the state level as well as students, community members and bridge lovers as we start to look at this project. It is a blank slate, except for the bridge. We know what it needs in the short term, railing, decking and lighting which our master craftsmen, Nels Raynor and his BACH Steel Rivet Gang, will do. They use techniques that were used when this bridge was built working with cast and wrought iron, and will give the museum piece the attention to detail that it deserves.”
Hayden Bridge is a rare 1882 Whipple Truss, built of wrought and cast iron members, manufactured by Clark & Reeves Co, Phoenixville, Pennsylvania. The bridge is in excellent condition. Originally built as a replacement to an original crossing for the Transcontinental Railroad in Corrine, Utah, this railroad bridge was moved in 1901 to Springfield, Oregon where it remained in service until 1987, most recently owned by Weyerhaeuser.
Anyone interested in being part of the future of this bridge should contact Julie Bowers at firstname.lastname@example.org, or call 641.260.1262
The North Skunk River Greenbelt Association - NSRGA was founded in 2010 and is dedicated to the preservation of historic truss bridges.
Workin' Bridges, a nonprofit dedicated to historic truss bridge restoration, under the guidance of The North Skunk River Greenbelt Association (NSRGA). Workin’ Bridges was founded by Julie Bowers and Nels Raynor at the end of 2011 to provide consulting for other bridge restoration projects while we tried to figure out how to save our own bowstring bridge. www.facebook.com/WorkinBridges www.workinbridges.org
Historical Significance (Library of Congress): The Hayden Bridge incorporates two features that were milestones in the history of wrought iron bridge building: the Whipple-Murphy truss and the Phoenix column. The Hayden Bridge was fabricated by Clarke, Reeves & Company, Phoenixville Bridge Works of Phoenixville, Pennsylvania in 1882. It was originally erected across the Bear River at Corrine, Utah by the Central Pacific Railroad, on the line that was part of the first Transcontinental Railroad. The bridge was dismantled and reassembled across the McKenzie River near Springfield, Oregon in 1901, as part of a logging spur line owned by the Southern Pacific Railroad. The 224 feet long wrought-iron span includes hollow "Phoenix Columns," an innovative fabrication design of the wrought-iron period of American bridge building. This feature was a staple of the Phoenixville Bridge Works. The span is a Double-Intersection Pratt Truss, also called a Whipple-Murphy Truss. In 1847, Squire Whipple patented his design for a Pratt Truss made of iron, with diagonal web members crossing two panel points. The Hayden Bridge is made of wrought-iron, except for the connections and ornamentation, which are cast-iron. Ornamental medallions are placed at the crossing of the diagonal portal bracings. Railroad brake-wheel designs decorate the corner portal brackets. A cast-iron nameplate atop the portal gives the full name of the Phoenixville Works. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/or0289/
Finally. The preliminary purchase agreements have been edited and we have a closing date in June. The "Bridge of the Year" is on track to begin planning for it to be open. As always when we go into a project, we go in as the owner and with the commitment that in the end, we are the owners, until future ownership can be determined.
We have found that under our ownership there is no question that the job will be done right. The bridge here requires railing that must equal the quality of the job and be decorative and safe. It needs decking and lighting. We are utilizing our local DOT friends to help get the word out to those that want to be part of the planning project. We have funds to help the design and planning process and have talked with the a professor at the University about master's level internships yet this summer that will move the conversation forward.
This bridge, too, was on a course for demolition, until Workin' Bridges stepped in. With perseverance, we were able to convince Weyerhaeuser that this would be a gift to the city of Springfield and Lane County, Oregon for this majestic bridge to get the attention it deserves.
The history is compelling. The Phoenix Bridge story is compelling. The use on the transcontinental railroad system is compelling. It's move is compelling because these bridges were built for this.
This bridge is to be preserved. Coast to coast, more are seeing the light bulbs go off, that these are resources not liabilities.
This bridge appears to be on the move, to be reused along with two other trusses than may be here. 45.62083, -117.71972
Part of Nez Perce Homeland Project
This bridge is actually located in Linn County. Once the county was switched the NBI data became available.
I made the change for you Mike, my apologies for intruding.
The 2014 inspection report states the NBI#37 is a "5" for what it is worth....
This span was previously built over Eagle Creek along the Columbia River in 1926, moved here in 1970. The move is mentioned in the Eagle Creek file but I do not see it here. I remember the previous bridge over the Clackamas with the rattling plank deck.
This bridge is turned with a large, heavy, metal bar that is angled, and has a square opening that fits over a peg from the center of the gears located below the deck. The operator puts the square opening over the peg, and walks in a circle, using the metal bar in front of them to push against, and move the bridge span. The bridge slowly moves into place as the operator walks it into position. It is then locked into place for the train to go over at no more than five miles an hour. Then it is unlocked, and moved back again, so river traffic, including tall sailboats, can maneuver through. I was a bridge-tender for two years for the Lewis & Clark excursion train, and enjoyed working with this bridge.
Not a truss here... Just a stringer with a "Lid" on it.
Certainly not historic...As far as Notability goes, that lies in the eye of the beholder. "Romantic Shelter" covered bridges as they are often called, do nothing to excite me.
Brandon... yes it is, Astoria (and the bridge) is the setting for a number of movies. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astoria,_Oregon#In_popular_cul...
I keep thinking this is the bridge that could seen in Short Circuit and The Goonies in the background of few shots.
Still on track to stay where it is Lee. Talks going on with city and Weyerhaeuser the owner.
I have not heard an update on this bridge lately. Workin' Bridges looked at it earlier this year. I am hoping the Hayden Bridge will become a pedestrian bridge. If anyone has any knowledge of anything to do with this bridge as in restoration, etc. can you please email me? Beautiful abandoned bridge in Springfield Oregon. A museum piece that I would hate to see destroyed.
Your image and insight really intrigues us historians at ODOT, who are interested in a lot of things your father may have seen in his time at Clackamas.
Would you be willing to have a phone call with us, so we might learn more?
Thanks for posting this -- a huge help.
This looks like a Pratt to me, not Warren. All bays have their diagonals slope towards midspan and are in tension. Warrens don't have main vertical bars either.
Trestle fires are spectacular.
Brush fire engulfs trestle near Sherwood, Oregon.
This bridge was one of the least elegant of Conde McCullough's bridges but, in my opinion, doubling the width of the bridge removed what little grace and beauty the structure possessed. Although it looks like they tried to keep with the original design with the gothic arched railings, they are almost lost against the bulk of the bigger bridge, and the arches are no longer elegant but are just massive. It might have been better had they built a second bridge angling in from upstream and have left the original alone. Too late now, I suppose.
OK, this is rather unfair. A whole swarm of people are dangling from this bridge and the police don't interfere?! That isn't a typical experience with police that a historic bridge photographer might experience when engaging in such legitimate activities such as climbing up or under a large bridge for the purpose of proper photo-documentation. I have been escorted off large bridges merely for WALKING ON THE DECK.
Ironically, the article says the police DID shut the sidewalks down. So the people were allowed to dangle, but you couldn't walk on the bridge?
Successful move to storage with an option to purchase. Saved. Photo of Julie Bowers and Tyler Bullen (great great great grandson)
The plaque is still attached. The plans are that Portland Water Bureau gets the original and they want several casts. We may be able to start casting signs as fund raising opportunities. Pretty fun.
At 13 and a half..I made it a quarter of the way across..before the train..arrived..ON the other side..from the upper valley. Sigh..it really was..a great idea..at the time!
How about that crazy guy standing at the top of the stay tower for the swing span? How did he even get up there?
Great information about an amazing structure long lost.
Thanks for the imagery and historical info Scott.
I made a typo in my comment. The bridge was constructed in 1887, not 1897. Like many other Oregon Pacific wooden truss bridges, portions of it were later covered to extend the lifespan of the bridge.
By the way, here is the photograph that the person who did the sketch used, if you'd prefer to see the original.
These photos courtesy Lloyd Palmer. If you want to gauge just how big the bridge was, compare the size of the timber in the picture with the size of the man standing near the front of the bridge.
The bridge was not a Southern Pacific bridge. It was built for the Oregon Pacific Railroad in 1897, and was replaced by the current steel bridge by the Southern Pacific Railroad. At the time of its construction, it was the largest bridge in Oregon.
Neither historic nor notable, nor is it even a covered bridge.
The project is scheduled to be completed this summer. The remaining work includes installation of a new water line on the bridge, paving and bridge surface treatment (Paint).
More information can be found at the following link...
When will this bridge be completed? It still has construction cones up and is collecting garbage.we use bridge daily and would like to know when it is suppose to be completed. I understood it was to be completed at least a year ago. Thank you for your prompt reply. Sincerely, Mr. and Mrs. ODonnell
The original street view didn't work, so I made a new one and made it first in order.
This bridge is currently being repainted.
By the way, the Oregon Southern and Eastern Railroad, and its trestles, featured prominently in another film - Emperor of the North - starring Lee Marvin and Ernest Borgnine. It's a pretty dreadful and violent film, the only saving grace is that it also contains some of the best steam railroad action scenes to ever grace the silver screen.
This bridge was built for the film and was not a bridge used by the Oregon Southern and Eastern Railroad itself. It was designed to collapse at the climatic moment of the film, so bridge affectionados can relax - no real bridge was harmed during the making of this movie!
Of more interest is the over-under trestle shown part way through the movie in the scene where the raiders, on the top level of the trestle, throw ties down onto the train passing below in hopes of derailing it. There were only three or four known Over and Under Trestles in Oregon, and most of them don't match the setting in the movie - and none of them were anywhere near Cottage Grove, where the film was made. For years railroad fans and film nuts have wondered where that particular scene had been shot.
Lloyd Palmer, Terry Gookin, Len Wall and a group of several other rail historians and fans, myself included, finally located photos of an over-under trestle at Black Rock, Oregon, west of Dallas that match the trestle in the movie exactly, and given that the logging railroad at Black Rock was owned by George Gerlinger, and that Buster Keaton had sent the locomotives to be used in the movie to Gerlinger Locomotive Works to be refurbished and back-dated for the film, we knew that the movie engines had been in the vicinity, and personal examination of the trestle site and comparing it with both historic photos of the trestle and stills of the movie proved beyond a shadow of a doubt that the over-under trestle scene was filmed at Black Rock.
The Hayden Bridge Preservation Plan has been submitted to the owner. What a wonderful experience..helping others know real costs for decision making. It's what Workin' Bridges does...bring an effective team together using locals and, one of the best, our going on five years collaboration with Nels Raynor. Next stop Kansas.
By far one of the most beautifully unpreserved bridges ive ever had the pleasure of looking at....Perfect ....as a restorer of these beautiful structures there is no easier one to restore its as good as the day it was built!!
Bridge currently closed for reconstruction. From top of Column entire timber approach viewed to be gone. New piers in water.
Marvig wondered if this bridge has seen recent use judging by the rust content on the rails. Although the tracks stretch to an end with abandoned rail car on the west side of Astoria before Young's Bay they have indeed not been used. Use would involve moving freight cars over alder saplings growing in the rail bed on both sides of the John Day Bridge. http://bridgehunter.com/or/clatsop/pnwr-john-day-river/ They are larger on the west side than east.
I'd surmise the tracks are not used past the pulp mill at Wauna. Speaking of the images Garland took at Clatskanie had the bridge in the open for rail position. This was true on April 14, 2015 when passing by. Passenger thus no stopping. On April 16, passing by again, the bridge had returned to the state Mike Goff captured, on the side off the river. http://bridgehunter.com/or/columbia/bh43460/
It should be noted that there are two John Day Rivers in the state of Oregon. This bridge and the nearby railroad bridge cross the smaller lesser know version of the river in Clatsop County in extreme northwestern Oregon. The remaining bridges listed on this site cross the larger better known river that meanders through eastern Oregon. I made the category changes to reflect this.
Ah yes, April Fool's Day marks the beginning of truck attack season!
Sounds like a terrible situation for the neighbors.
Looks like 1897 to me.
Here is a little blip from the Astoria Railroad Preservation Association's website....
"By 1898, a local industrialist named A.B. Hammond had built 50 miles of track along the Columbia River connecting Astoria with the tiny town of Goble and, more importantly, the Northern Pacific Railroad."
My guess is it is 1897--I have a relative with an old regulator clock, and the 7 also is the same as the 2 flipped upside-down. I suppose then they only needed one stamp for 2 numbers.
I looked at the pictures and the number 1 and 9 are both orientated the correct way. Might it actually be 1897?
The bridge is listed here as being built in 1895, but the date plaque has the date 1892. I wonder if it's because, with the bridge being in the open position then the date plaque would be viewed from behind and backwards, hence the 1895 date?
Rusty rails would say it hasn't seen a train in years
Was just contacted by the grandson of the builder, Tyler Bullen who is very grateful that this bridge will be preserved. The contract has been signed on the west coast and we have 90 days to get it off the water works property. They want the signage which we will replicate.
PDF version of HAER drawings attached.
I would guess they are talking about the Hayden Bridge. It is the only other Phoenix Column bridge in the state that I am aware of. Plus I know the owner is looking to remove their liability surrounding the structure. As for it being near Cottage Grove, the only thing I can say is on a global scale that statment is correct.
Great news for this bridge but it mentions that the other Phoenix Column bridge in "Cottage Grove" is being dismantled! Do they mean the Hayden Bridge?!?
Great news for this bridge but it mentions that the other Phoenix Column bridge in "Cottage Grove" is being dismantled! Do they mean the Hayden Bridge?!?
Does the Highway Commission categorize it as a Howe?
Roof and siding were replaced in mid 2014.
Not really iffy but if they are interested they should contact us as we have a scope of work done for this bridge. It has been read twice at Portland city council and the plan is a bridge park somewhere.
It will be scrapped if this doesn't go through but I think we are good.
First learned of this bridge from the December Oregonian article. Sounded like the plan to move it east was iffy. I contacted the Washington Trails Commission and suggested that it would be a good replacement for the washed out bridge on the Klickitat river at Suburbia. This is the only break in the 31 mile length of the Klickitat trail. I have learned that there is interest on the WTC board and they will discuss it further after the holidays. The Klickitat river is only 65?? miles from the Sandy river and would be a fitting place for this historic bridge. The enclosed pictures are of the tarp covered components of the bridge.
News from the West Coast
This job will be going to BACH Steel and blasting in Michigan before on to it's next home if all goes well.
Please note that in several pictures, the date plate on the bridge reads "1907" not 1910.
Whoever shot these photos was speeding, according to the sign!
Based on the photos at Bridgehunter you might not realize this, but you can walk on this bridge, and if you have an appreciation for the details of a historic bridge it is well worth it. There is a small parking lot on the Washington end of the bridge. Park there and walk. I did a complete walkthrough photo-documentation of this bridge which will eventually be added to HistoricBridges.org.
Glad to see someone has finally devoted the time to getting good shots of this giant truss. Nice photo documentation!
Good work Royce!
Thank you Adam,
I had the pictures in the wrong folder when I posted them. I have corrected the photos.
The photos taken by Royce and Bobette Haley are actually of the Tooth Rock Tunnel on I-84 in the Gorge. Notice the one-way traffic, and the different style of lighting on the crowd on the tunnel lining.
Needed to clarify the correct name for this bridge. It is actually the Elk Creek Bridge. I grew up near this bridge, and still in the area. Poodle Creek flows into Elk Creek less than a mile upstream.
Here is a higher quality version of the photo. Full size in the zip file.
Article here >.>
Recap. Semi hits section of bridge. Driver cited. Oregon DOT does bridge inspection. Good to go.
Scottsburg Bridge took a lickin and kept on ticking today!
The report stated that since the adjacent Lusted Road Bridge already had pedestrian facilities and pedestrian traffic volumes were low, the justification for leaving the bridge in place as a pedestrian structure was not sufficient.
I agree it will be a great local loss, but knowing the truss will be preserved is a great victory!
Great news Julie, glad you could make the connection before the bridge was melted down! Cheers!
With all of the local history surrounding this bridge... Portland is ABSOLUTELY crazy if they let this bridge leave the area!
Of course, with this being in the area of a park, I'm at a loss of understanding as to why this wasn't simply converted to a pedestrian bridge!
It sounded like this save was "just in time"! Also known as Sandy River Bridge, Workin' Bridges has signed a letter of intent to save this bridge for a new client. A Scope of Work and Estimate is being prepared and a big move planned. The end result - another very historic bridge is to be saved using best practices. We are very excited but as always cautious until the final documents are signed and our client reveals their intents regarding historic bridges.
Mike feel free to check out my site on flickr drawbridges photostream if you haven't viewed it or already view my work.
Mike thanks for the insight even though I had been studying movable bridges of 15 years yes I do make mistakes like everyone of misinformation but not on purpose much appreciated.
I believe you have your drawings mis-labeled for these Catching Slough and South Slough Bridges.
Your sketch of “Catching Slough” shows the truss configuration for the old South Slough Bridge and it is labeled “Replaced with a Bascule Bridge” which is the case at South Slough. Catching Slough was replaced with a fixed span pre-stressed concrete bridge.
While I am not going to lie, your background on this sketch certainly looks more like the Catching Slough area vs South Slough at Charleston. However, the bridge certainly is not the Catching Slough swing bridge.
You might want to consider removing this sketch from the Catching Slough page and adding it to the old South Slough posting ( http://bridgehunter.com/or/coos/south-slough/ ).
I have attached the ODOT drawings for these respective bridges to illustrate my point as to which bridge is which.
A great little bridge that's so cool to walk and gaze over at the dam and fish ladder with its low railing. A challenge to bike over with the narrow lane, but there's small enclaves along the side to let others pass.
Picture from March 2014:
Under heavy restoration summer 2014:
(Includes two photos of this bridge)
Under heavy restoration summer 2014: